N. Lazzerini, A. Zazzo, A. Coulon, Ts. Turbat, C. Marchina, S. Lepetz, « Date of death of domestic caprines assessed by oxygen isotopic analysis of developing molars : Implications for deciphering the calendar of pastoral activities in prehistory », Journal of Archaeological Science, 120
The assessment of the date of death (DOD) of animals found in archaeological sites provides insights into the exploitation of their environment by ancient mobile and sedentary populations. In an attempt to overcome the limitations of the traditional methods, we determine the DOD of domestic caprines using sequential oxygen isotope analysis of developing tooth enamel. We built a reference set composed of developing molars from 14 modern sheep and goats from Western and Central Mongolia with known DOD. The teeth were sequentially sampled, and δ18O sequences were modelled using a cosine function in order to position the lowermost δ18O value (δf) within the annual cycle. We found that δf values are strongly linearly correlated with the DOD (R2 = 0.88), allowing the use of this regression to estimate the DOD with a precision of about ±25 d (1σ). This method was applied to determine the DOD of caprines found in two graves in the Xiongnu necropolis of Egiin Gol, Mongolia. We determined a slaughter date of late July and late September for the two graves, respectively, suggesting that burial occurred during the warm season. By combining this information with age at death assessed using tooth eruption stages and tooth wear patterns, we were also able to determine that caprine birth occurred mostly in April and was strongly controlled within this seasonal window by the herders, much like in Mongolia today. (source)
N. Lazzerini, A. Zazzo, A. Coulon, C. Marchina, N. Bayarkhuu, V. Bernard, M. Cervel, D. Fiorillo, D. Joly, C. Noûs, Ts. Turbat, S. Lepetz, « Season of death of domestic horses deposited in a ritual complex from Bronze Age Mongolia : Insights from oxygen isotope time-series in tooth enamel », Journal of Archaeological Science : Reports, 32.
The horse, as a domestic animal, had a strong impact on the organisation of ancient societies of the eastern steppes of Eurasia by enabling people to move faster and transport goods and people more efficiently. This newfound mobility was accompanied by profound changes in the expression of ritual practices, and horses are repeatedly found in funerary monuments of the Late Bronze Age in Mongolia. While recent advances in research have highlighted the link between the presence of horses in ritual monuments and their role in the pastoralist diet, little is yet known about their practical contexts – including the season in which the animals were slaughtered and the time of year when the funerary and ritual sites were visited. In modern Mongolia, horse meat is consumed during winter, but the antiquity of this practice is currently undocumented. Here, we use stable oxygen isotope variations (δ18O) recorded by developing molars of horses to estimate the season of slaughter of two horses deposited at the Late Bronze Age khirgisuur of Burgast (Bayan-Ölgii province, western Mongolia). The analysis of a modern reference set consisting of five horses from the same locality shows that it is possible to date the time of death with a resolution of the order of the season. Isotopic analysis of the two ancient horses suggests that they were slaughtered in early (November) and late (February) winter. Zooarchaeological evidence reveals that while the first horse was deposited shortly after death, the second was deposited several months after death, following open-air exposure. These preliminary results provide an important landmark to document the multi-dimensional aspects (economic, social, as well as cultural) of the role of horses in the ritual practices of Bronze Age Mongolia. They indicate that the timing of horse deposition is more complex than previously thought. They also demonstrate that winter slaughtering of horses dates back to the Late Bronze Age and was probably constrained by a combination of economic and practical decisions regarding meat preservation. (source)
La section française de l’Université des langues étrangères de Tokyo cherche un lecteur français pour l’année 2020/2021 ou 2021/2022.
Intitulé du poste: Lecteur(trice) de français en contrat à durée déterminée
Un minimum de 8 cours de 90 minutes chacun par semaine (cours de français de tout niveau et cours de civilisation française et européenne
Le travail implique également des tâches administratives liées à l’enseignement du français, un accompagnement personnalisé des étudiants, ou encore l’élaboration des examens de concours d’entrée à l’université
Titulaire d’un doctorat souhaitable
Avoir publié au moins trois travaux scientifiques
Avoir suivi une formation en didactique du FLE (français langue étrangère)
Une expérience de l’enseignement du français est souhaitable
Personne de langue maternelle française
Type de contrat
Lecteur en contrat à durée déterminée
Durée du contrat : 2 ans
Un seul renouvellement est éventuellement possible selon l’évaluation du travail de la personne et en fonction du besoin et de la condition financière de l’université
Rémunération: conforme aux rémunérations fixées par l’Université des langues étrangères de Tokyo.
Date prévisionnelle de prise de poste: le 1er octobre 2020 ou le 1er avril 2021
Date limite de réception des candidatures: Le 5 juillet 2020